do humans exploit penguins?
In numerous places around the world, penguins have been exploited for food, oil and skins and even used as fish bait. As well as adult penguins, their eggs have also been exploited and in some places they are still collected today.
Tourism is another form of exploitation. There are many sites in the world where tourists can visit penguins in the wild and this is not always beneficial to the penguins or their environment. Penguins are also taken from the wild and held in zoos for benefit of us curious humans.
   
do penguins communicate?
Penguins communicate using calls and visual displays. These are used for such purposes as declaring territory, showing agression or submission, attracting and greeting mates.
Click on an icon to hear some penguins:
Fiordland penguin chick
many penguins are there and where do they live?
Most authors recognise 17 species of penguin, but cases have been made to separate the rockhoppers into northern and southern species and to separate the white-flippered penguin from the blue penguin.
The species and sub-species currently recognised are;
|Common name||Scientific name||Range||Population|
|King||Aptenodytes patagonicus||Subantarctic and Antarctic islands between 46° and 55° south.||1,100,000|
|Emperor||Aptenodytes forsteri||Antarctic pack-ice zone||400,000|
|Gentoo||Pygoscelis papua||Subantarctic islands and the Antarctic Peninsula||600,000|
|Adelie||Pygoscelis adeliae||Antactic continent and islands||5,000,000|
|Chinstrap||Pygoscelis antarctica||Antarctic peninsula and subantarctic islands||7,500,000|
|Rockhopper||Eudyptes chrysocome||Subantarctic islands||100,000|
|(Southern)||Subantarctic islands south of Antarctic Polar front.|
|(Northern)||Subantarctic islands north of Antarctic Polar front.|
|Fiordland crested||Eudyptes pachyrynchus||Fiordland and Stewart Island coasts of New Zealand||5,000|
|Snares crested||Eudyptes robustus||Snares Islands, New Zealand||30,000|
|Erect-crested||Eudyptes sclateri||New Zealand subantarcic islands||150,000|
|Macaroni||Eudyptes chrysolophus||Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic and Subantarctic islands||11,800,000|
|Royal||Eudyptes schlegeli||Macquarie Island, south of Australia||850,000|
|Yellow-eyed||Megadyptes antipodes||South-east coast of New Zealand, Campbell and Auckland Islands||5,000|
|Blue (little)||Eudyptula minor||New Zealand and Southern Australia||500,000|
|(White-flippered)||Eudyptula minor albosignata||Banks Peninsula and Motunau Island, New Zealand|
|Magellanic||Spheniscus magellanicus||Southern Argentina and Chile, Falkland Islands||750,000|
|African||Spheniscus demersus||South-east coast of South Africa and Namibia||50,000|
|Humbolt||Spheniscus humboltdi||Peru and Chile||30,000|
|Galapagos||Spheniscus mendiculus||Galapagos Islands, Equador||3,000|
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